Google announced support for the list-unsubscribe header in Gmail back in 2009. Since then, lots of ESP folks have some idea of how it works, but it seems to be a bit lightly documented. So here I will throw together a few frequently asked questions (with answers) that I hope will help folks trying to understand how this functionality works.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
What method does the Gmail list-unsubscribe functionality utilize?
Gmail supports both the MAILTO and HTTP types of list unsubscribe functionality. When the Gmail unsubscribe link is clicked, here's what happens for each type:
- The MAILTO method results in an email message being sent back to a special email address found in that list-unsubscribe header.
- The HTTP method results in Gmail linking you to the sender's unsubscribe page where you can finish submitting your unsubscribe request.
Why does the "Unsubscribe" link not show for all messages?
Even if an email messages includes a list-unsubscribe header, Gmail's user interface will not display the "unsubscribe" link if Google believes the sender's reputation is poor. It turns out that this is one of those things that is lightly documented, but widely observed. The best proof of this reputation-related requirement can be found here, where Google said the following when announcing support for this functionality:
"This only works for some senders right now. We're actively encouraging senders to support auto-unsubscribe — we think 100% should. We won't provide the unsubscribe option on messages from spammers: we can't trust that they'll actually unsubscribe you, and they might even send you more spam. So you'll only see the unsubscribe option for senders that we're pretty sure are not spammers and will actually honor your unsubscribe request. We're being pretty conservative about which senders to trust in the beginning; over time, we hope to offer the ability to unsubscribe from more email."Why do ISPs like Gmail and Hotmail want to utilize this list-unsubscribe functionality?
I think Return Path's Melinda Plemel explains it well here:
"So how do the Mailbox providers benefit from the use of list-unsubscribe? Since their users were using the “report spam” button in a way that wasn’t originally intended, businesses would often see inflated complaint rates. This in turn caused false positives with mailbox providers’ spam filters, and flagged opt-in permission-based email as spam. By creating a trusted way for people to unsubscribe, spam complaint rates have been more accurate, and mailbox providers have gotten better at separating spam from graymail. This also explains why both Outllook.com and Gmail use the list-unsubscribe functionality leverage the list-unsubscribe option when for senders with good sending reputations. Neither Google or Microsoft want the list-unsubscribe to be abused by spammers, too."In other words, it helps ISPs better tell good senders apart from spammers. This, in turn, benefits good senders, because making it easier to unsubscribe results in fewer spam complaints, and fewer spam complaints equates to a better chance of getting email reliably delivered to the inbox.
Should I be concerned about this List Unsubscribe functionality making it too easy for recipients to unsubscribe?
Litmus's Chad White has put together a fantastic analysis for the impact the recent launch of Apple iOS10's support for list unsubscribe, helping to allay concerns that marketers may have. Its guidance also applies equally well to concerns over the Gmail and Microsoft versions of the list unsubscribe functionality.
Is this an ISP Feedback Loop?
No, this is not an ISP feedback loop (FBL), alas. Gmail does not actually offer FBL-like functionality that allows you to unsubscribe people who have reported your emails as spam. They have separate functionality that they refer to as a feedback loop (FBL), but it's really more appropriately referred to as Google Postmaster Tools.
Sometimes you'll wonder: But if Gmail doesn't have an FBL, why do I sometimes receive unsubscribe requests, from Gmail users, initiated by pushing a button in the Gmail user interface? That is because of the list-unsubscribe functionality. Similar to, but different than, an ISP feedback loop.
Got any other questions? Leave them in comments, and I'll update this post as time allows.
(H/T to Laura Atkins, who helped me hunt down that original Google announcement. Laura has her own thoughts on List Unsubscribe, as well.)